- Jr. Schuyler, Montomery. (1902). “The Etymology of the Dutch Word ‘Kabeljauw’”. The Journal of Germanic Philology, Vol. 4, No. 1 (1902), pp. 55-57.
- D. H. Kelley, “Proto-Tifinagh and Proto-Ogham in the Americas:Review of Fell; Fell and Farley; Fell and Reinert; Johannessen, et al.; McGlone and Leonard; Totten”, The Review of Archaeology, Spring 1990, http://www.reviewofarchaeology.com/pastissues.html
A substantial body of Greenland Inuit folklore first collected in the 1800s has accounts of of journeys by boat to “Akilineq”, described as a rich country across the ocean (‘the opposite country’, possibly an area in northeastern North America, or even Europe, but probably Iceland)
- Fossett, Renée (2001). In Order to Live Untroubled: Inuit of the Central Arctic, 1550-1940. University of Manitoba Press. pp. 75–77. ISBN 0-88755-647-7.
Contact between indigenous Americans and the Norse is well attested.
- Forbes, Jack D. (1993). Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. University of Illinois Press. pp. 18–21.
A 2010 genetic study of the Icelandic population showed over 350 living Icelanders carried Amerindian mitochondrial DNA from a line of descent of a single woman, almost certainly around 1000 CE, who was likely Beothuk. And of course, the Romans.
A 2010 genetic study of the Icelandic population showed over 350 living Icelanders carried Amerindian mitochondrial DNA from a line of descent of a single woman, almost certainly around 1000 CE, who was likely Beothuk.
And of course, the Romans.A bay in Brazil has been yielding ancient clay storage jars that resemble Roman amphora for over 150 years.
There’s also the Tecaxic-Calixtlahuaca head, made of terracotta with a beard and European-like features found in a burial offering under three intact floors of a pre-colonial building in Toluca Valley. Both a Roman art authority in Rome and an Austrian anthropologist stated that the style of the artifact was “compatible” with small Roman sculptures of the 2nd century.
Smith concedes he cannot rule out the possibility that the head was a genuinely buried Post-classic offering at Calixtlahuaca.
- Smith, Michael E., (2010) “The ‘Roman Figurine’ Supposedly Excavated at Calixtlahuaca”.
I mean, here’s a New York Times article from 1985 on how underwater archeological exploration in Brazil was halted by the Brazilian navy after amphorae and possibly a Roman shipwreck were discovered. I’ve read reports about the Brazilian navy continuing some of these excavations themselves in secret.
According to Elizabeth Will, a professor of classics and specialist in ancient Roman amphoras at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, the jars are very similar to the ones produced at Kouass, a Roman Empire colony that was a center for amphora-making on the Atlantic coast of Morocco.
Reached by telephone, Professor Will said of the fragments she had studied: ”They look to be ancient and because of the profile, the thin-walled fabric and the shape of the rims I suggested they belong to the third century A.D.”
But I guess everyone but Black people and the entire continent of Africa never bothered to sail anywhere.
Most arguments against possible evidence aren’t rooted in evidence themselves but either a lack of evidence or personal opinion disguised as such.
A lack of evidence isn’t proof to the contrary. Remember that science, and much less fields where consensus is often largely based around opinion, will never be completely objective because these methodologies are performed by humans. People aren’t omniscient either (and neither is science contrary to popular opinion) because not everything survived to the present day. Things go unnoticed, ignored, suppressed, erased, and destroyed.
If you don’t think Whiteness and many anthropologists/historians/archeologists are invested in maintaining the status quo and keeping history white, you’re deluding yourself.