Since her death in 1979, the woman who discovered what the universe is made of has not so much as received a memorial plaque. Her newspaper obituaries do not mention her greatest discovery. […] Every high school student knows that Isaac Newton discovered gravity, that Charles Darwin discovered evolution, and that Albert Einstein discovered the relativity of time. But when it comes to the composition of our universe, the textbooks simply say that the most abundant atom in the universe is hydrogen. And no one ever wonders how we know.

 -

Jeremy Knowles, discussing the complete lack of recognition Cecilia Payne gets, even today, for her revolutionary discovery. (via alliterate)

OH WAIT LEMME TELL YOU ABOUT CECILIA PAYNE.

Cecilia Payne’s mother refused to spend money on her college education, so she won a scholarship to Cambridge.

Cecilia Payne completed her studies, but Cambridge wouldn’t give her a degree because she was a woman, so she said fuck that and moved to the United States to work at Harvard.

Cecilia Payne was the first person ever to earn a Ph.D. in astronomy from Radcliffe College, with what Otto Strauve called “the most brilliant Ph.D. thesis ever written in astronomy.”

Not only did Cecilia Payne discover what the universe is made of, she also discovered what the sun is made of (Henry Norris Russell, a fellow astronomer, is usually given credit for discovering that the sun’s composition is different from the Earth’s, but he came to his conclusions four years later than Payne—after telling her not to publish).

Cecilia Payne is the reason we know basically anything about variable stars (stars whose brightness as seen from earth fluctuates). Literally every other study on variable stars is based on her work.

Cecilia Payne was the first woman to be promoted to full professor from within Harvard, and is often credited with breaking the glass ceiling for women in the Harvard science department and in astronomy, as well as inspiring entire generations of women to take up science.

Cecilia Payne is awesome and everyone should know her.

(via bansheewhale)

147,606 notes   •   August 16 2014, 09:16 AM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE

Since “biological sex” is actually a social construct, those who say that it is not often have to argue about what it entails. Some say it’s based on chromosomes (of which there are many non-XX/XY combinations, as well as diversity among people with XY chromosomes), others say it’s genitals or gonads (either at birth or at the moment you’re talking about), others say it’s hormone levels (which vary widely and can be manipulated), still others say it’s secondary sex characteristics like the appearance of breasts, body hair and muscle mass (which vary even more). Some say that it’s a combination of all of them. Now, this creates a huge problem, as sex organs, secondary sex characteristics and hormone levels aren’t anywhere close to being universal to all men or women, males or females.

Those who claim that sex is determined by chromosomes must not realize that sex is assigned at birth not by chromosomes, not even by gonads, but by genitals. In fact, the vast majority of us never learn what our sex chromosomes are. Sex isn’t something we’re actually born with, it’s something that doctors or our parents assign us at birth. So if sex is determined by genitals, they must be clearly binary and unchangable, right? Wrong. Genitals can be ambiguous at birth and many trans people get gender confirmation surgery to change them. Neither chromosomes nor genitals are binary in the way that “biological sex” defenders claim they are, and the vast majority of measures by which we judge sex are very much changable.

2,919 notes   •   August 08 2014, 09:16 AM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE

ratpoet:

 when you say “nonbinary identities don’t exist BECAUSE SCIENCE”

all you’re telling me is that you don’t know what science is

science is a systematic attempt to describe the world. science does not define the world

if you were to go up to a scientist and say “there are things that exist in the word that science does has not yet adequately described, or described at all” 

the scientist would be like “yeah i know, that’s why i still have a job”

15,600 notes   •   August 02 2014, 03:38 PM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE
#science   #Yep.   #gender   

goatings:

justbriann:

It literally says it might make you sweat. Just in a really fancy way. Lol

it also labels the contents as “dihydrogen monoxide”, which is just “water” in chemistry terms.

58,473 notes   •   July 23 2014, 09:16 AM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE
#humor   #want   #Portal   #drinks   #science   #videogames   

Noisy Predators Put Plants on Alert, Study Finds - NYTimes.com    

nezua:

rubyvroom:

note-a-bear:

To see whether predator noises would affect plants, two University of Missouri researchers exposed one set of plants to a recording of caterpillars eating leaves, and kept another set of plants in silence. Later, when caterpillars fed on the plants, the set that had been exposed to the eating noises produced more of a caterpillar-repelling chemical.

Evidently, the chomping noises primed the plant to produce the deterrent. “So when the attack finally happens, it’s kaboom,” said Heidi Appel, a chemical ecologist and an author of the study. The chemical comes “faster and often in greater amounts.”

Plants exposed to other vibrations, like the sound of wind or different insects, did not produce more of the chemical, suggesting they could tell the difference between predator noises and atmospheric ones. The researchers published their work in the journal Oecologia.
rubyvroom
and I discussed this briefly when railing (equally briefly) on a certain breed of vegangelical assertion wrt sentience of the things you/we eat.

plants react to being eaten - your move, vegans!

well. that puts a spin on eating uncooked veggies, now don’t it? just imagine your salad screaming at you as you unfeelingly tear through all its vesicles with your cruel, cruel, teeth…it’s ethical because you can’t hear it!

eradicatedelicacy:

reallifescomedyrelief:

viforcontrol:

beautifuloutlier:

gwydtheunusual:

too—weird-to-live:

zafojones:

Circus Tree: Six individual sycamore trees were shaped, bent, and braided to form this.

how the hell do you bend and braid a tree

Actually pretty easy. Trees don’t reject tissue from other trees in the same family. You bend the tree to another tree when it is a sapling, scrape off the bark on both trees where they touch, add some damp sphagnum moss around them to keep everything slightly moist and bind them together. Then wait a few years- The trees will have grown together. You can use a similar technique to graft a lemon branch or a lime branch or even both- onto an orange tree and have one tree that has all three fruits.Frankentrees.

As a biologist I can clearly state that plants are fucking weird and you should probably be slightly afraid of them.

On that note! At the university (UBC) located in town, the Agriculture students were told by their teacher that a tree flipped upside down would die. So they took an excavator and flipped the tree upside down. And it’s still growing. But the branches are now the roots, and the roots are now these super gnarly looking branches. Be afraid.

But Vi, how can you mention that and NOT post a picture? D:

[source]

Tree apocalypse.

eradicatedelicacy:

reallifescomedyrelief:

viforcontrol:

beautifuloutlier:

gwydtheunusual:

too—weird-to-live:

zafojones:

Circus Tree: Six individual sycamore trees were shaped, bent, and braided to form this.

how the hell do you bend and braid a tree

Actually pretty easy. Trees don’t reject tissue from other trees in the same family. You bend the tree to another tree when it is a sapling, scrape off the bark on both trees where they touch, add some damp sphagnum moss around them to keep everything slightly moist and bind them together. 
Then wait a few years- The trees will have grown together. 

You can use a similar technique to graft a lemon branch or a lime branch or even both- onto an orange tree and have one tree that has all three fruits.

Frankentrees.

As a biologist I can clearly state that plants are fucking weird and you should probably be slightly afraid of them.

On that note! At the university (UBC) located in town, the Agriculture students were told by their teacher that a tree flipped upside down would die. So they took an excavator and flipped the tree upside down. And it’s still growing. But the branches are now the roots, and the roots are now these super gnarly looking branches. Be afraid.

But Vi, how can you mention that and NOT post a picture? D:

image

[source]

Tree apocalypse.

256,498 notes   •   June 25 2014, 04:55 PM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE
#plants   #trees   #biology   #science   #the best   
themarysue:

fireandwonder:

ladieslovescience:

femmerenaissance:

Vera Rubin (b. 1928)

When Vera Cooper Rubin told her high school physics teacher that she’d been accepted to Vassar, he said, “That’s great. As long as you stay away from science, it should be okay.”
Rubin graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1948, the only astronomy major in her class at Vassar, and went on to receive her master’s from Cornell in 1950 (after being turned away by Princeton because they did not allow women in their astronomy program) and her Ph.D. from Georgetown in 1954. Now a senior researcher at the Carnegie Institute’s Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Rubin is credited with proving the existence of “dark matter,” or nonluminous mass, and forever altering our notions of the universe. She did so by gathering irrefutable evidence to persuade the astronomical community that galaxies spin at a faster speed than Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation allows. As a result of this finding, astronomers conceded that the universe must be filled with more material than they can see. 
Rubin made a name for herself not only as an astronomer but also as a woman pioneer; she fought through severe criticisms of her work to eventually be elected to the National Academy of Sciences (at the time, only three women astronomers were members) and to win the highest American award in science, the National Medal of Science. Her master’s thesis, presented to a 1950 meeting of the American Astronomical Society, met with severe criticism, and her doctoral thesis was essentially ignored, though her conclusions were later validated. “Fame is fleeting,” Rubin said when she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. “My numbers mean more to me than my name. If astronomers are still using my data years from now, that’s my greatest compliment.”


 Sources:
1. http://innovators.vassar.edu/innovator.html?id=68; http://science.vassar.edu/women/
2. http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/45424

A+ YES. Fabulous ladies getting it DONE.
LLS

do you realize how many scifi stories she is indirectly responsible for?  She discovered the inspiration for Dust in The Golden Compass.

Another female scientist whose discoveries have been all over Cosmos without a mention of her life. 

themarysue:

fireandwonder:

ladieslovescience:

femmerenaissance:

Vera Rubin (b. 1928)


When Vera Cooper Rubin told her high school physics teacher that she’d been accepted to Vassar, he said, “That’s great. As long as you stay away from science, it should be okay.”

Rubin graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1948, the only astronomy major in her class at Vassar, and went on to receive her master’s from Cornell in 1950 (after being turned away by Princeton because they did not allow women in their astronomy program) and her Ph.D. from Georgetown in 1954. Now a senior researcher at the Carnegie Institute’s Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Rubin is credited with proving the existence of “dark matter,” or nonluminous mass, and forever altering our notions of the universe. She did so by gathering irrefutable evidence to persuade the astronomical community that galaxies spin at a faster speed than Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation allows. As a result of this finding, astronomers conceded that the universe must be filled with more material than they can see. 

Rubin made a name for herself not only as an astronomer but also as a woman pioneer; she fought through severe criticisms of her work to eventually be elected to the National Academy of Sciences (at the time, only three women astronomers were members) and to win the highest American award in science, the National Medal of Science. Her master’s thesis, presented to a 1950 meeting of the American Astronomical Society, met with severe criticism, and her doctoral thesis was essentially ignored, though her conclusions were later validated. “Fame is fleeting,” Rubin said when she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. “My numbers mean more to me than my name. If astronomers are still using my data years from now, that’s my greatest compliment.”

 Sources:

1. http://innovators.vassar.edu/innovator.html?id=68; http://science.vassar.edu/women/

2. http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/45424

A+ YES. Fabulous ladies getting it DONE.

LLS

do you realize how many scifi stories she is indirectly responsible for?  She discovered the inspiration for Dust in The Golden Compass.

Another female scientist whose discoveries have been all over Cosmos without a mention of her life. 

22,849 notes   •   June 19 2014, 11:49 AM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE
#scientists   #women   #science   

logic-and-art:

museymoaning:

YOU DONT FUCKING SAY

And on the other hand, you have men confounding results from mouse and rat studies in such a huge and disastrous way that almost all rodent-based experiments are being called into question.

20,969 notes   •   June 11 2014, 02:22 PM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE
comradeocean:

comradeocean:

jacquestati:

currywithrice:


jahalath:


zuky:


abagond:


Broomberg and Chanarin say their work, on show at Johannesburg’s Goodman Gallery, examines “the radical notion that prejudice might be inherent in the medium of photography itself”. They argue that early colour film was predicated on white skin: in 1977, when Jean-Luc Godard was invited on an assignment to Mozambique, he refused to use Kodak film on the grounds that the stock was inherently “racist”.
The light range was so narrow, Broomberg said, that “if you exposed film for a white kid, the black kid sitting next to him would be rendered invisible except for the whites of his eyes and teeth”. It was only when Kodak’s two biggest clients – the confectionary and furniture industries – complained that dark chocolate and dark furniture were losing out that it came up with a solution.
‘Racism’ of early colour photography | Guardian


Makes perfect sense to me. The human eye always adjusts to see people’s faces but the technology of photography developed around adjusting to white people only. You can probably dig deeper and look at the cultural institution that developed around photography for what came to be accepted as “what the camera likes” and the aesthetics of palettes and light conditions and such for more normalization of racist standards. Same can probably be said of a great deal of Eurocentric art, aesthetics, and technology in general.


So glad someone identified this tendency. When I did photography, I found my POC friends impossible to light with the reccomendations given by most photography blogs and such. I also found no techniques on how to photograph people with darker skin tones because even DSLRS require different types of exposures for darker skin.


Are these people serious


Yep cause it’s true
Film is an inherently racist medium, which seems unfortunately to bemost discussed by white authors (Richard Dyer, though, does have a lot of good information in White)
But when Spike Lee has to come up with his own methods of cinematography to film black people, something is definitely wrong
Or when I show up as a dark blob in photos with my white friends, or when I’m the only one who’s face isn’t picked up by any recognition technology, then I’d say film and photography are definitely racist media
edit-
idk how much we should be taking cues on racism from JLG tbh

Also the filters that get used for photo editing (digital and otherwise). Like, I think loads of pictures are specially developed with this blue tone that really lightens people up (while also making everything look washed out). And all the common tutorials (both on tumblr and elsewhere) to improve the lighting/image quality of screencaps for edits and gifs are totally useless for darker skin tones. I wish there were better fandom resources for this shit because it’s fucking frustrating.

reblogging to add:
‘12 Years a Slave,’ ‘Mother of George,’ and the aesthetic politics of filming black skin: (via cinematocat/cesaire)

“Montré Aza Missouri, an assistant professor in film at Howard University, recalls being told by one of her instructors in London that “if you found yourself in the ‘unfortunate situation’ of shooting on the ‘Dark Continent,’ and if you’re shooting dark-skinned people, then you should rub Vaseline on their skin in order to reflect light. It was never an issue of questioning the technology.” In her classes at Howard, Missouri says, “I talk to my students about the idea that the tools used to make film, the science of it, are not racially neutral.” 
Missouri reminds her students that the sensors used in light meters have been calibrated for white skin; rather than resorting to the offensive Vaseline solution, they need to manage the built-in bias of their instruments, in this case opening their cameras’ apertures one or two stops to allow more light through the lens. Filmmakers working with celluloid also need to take into account that most American film stocks weren’t manufactured with a sensitive enough dynamic range to capture a variety of dark skin tones. Even the female models whose images are used as reference points for color balance and tonal density during film processing — commonly called “China Girls” — were, until the mid-1990s, historically white. 
In the face of such technological chauvinism, filmmakers have been forced to come up with workarounds, including those lights thrown on Poitier and a variety of gels, scrims and filters. But today, such workarounds have been rendered virtually obsolete by the advent of digital cinematography, which allows filmmakers much more flexibility both in capturing images and manipulating them during post-production.”

and from the original article:

The artists feel certain that the ID-2 camera and its boost button were Polaroid’s answer to South Africa’s very specific need. “Black skin absorbs 42% more light. The button boosts the flash exactly 42%,” Broomberg explained. “It makes me believe it was designed for this purpose.”
In 1970 Caroline Hunter, a young chemist working for Polaroid in America, stumbled upon evidence that the company was effectively supporting apartheid. She and her partner Ken Williams formed the Polaroid Workers Revolutionary Movement and campaigned for a boycott. By 1977 Polaroid had withdrawn from South Africa, spurring an international divestment movement that was crucial to bringing down apartheid.
The title of the exhibition, To Photograph the Details of a Dark Horse in Low Light, refers to the coded phrase used by Kodak to describe a new film stock created in the early 1980s to address the inability of earlier films to accurately render dark skin.
The show also features norm reference cards that always used white women as a standard for measuring and calibrating skin tones when printing photographs. The series of “Kodak Shirleys” were named after the first model featured. Today such cards show multiple races.

comradeocean:

comradeocean:

jacquestati:

currywithrice:

jahalath:

zuky:

abagond:

Broomberg and Chanarin say their work, on show at Johannesburg’s Goodman Gallery, examines “the radical notion that prejudice might be inherent in the medium of photography itself”. They argue that early colour film was predicated on white skin: in 1977, when Jean-Luc Godard was invited on an assignment to Mozambique, he refused to use Kodak film on the grounds that the stock was inherently “racist”.

The light range was so narrow, Broomberg said, that “if you exposed film for a white kid, the black kid sitting next to him would be rendered invisible except for the whites of his eyes and teeth”. It was only when Kodak’s two biggest clients – the confectionary and furniture industries – complained that dark chocolate and dark furniture were losing out that it came up with a solution.

‘Racism’ of early colour photography | Guardian

Makes perfect sense to me. The human eye always adjusts to see people’s faces but the technology of photography developed around adjusting to white people only. You can probably dig deeper and look at the cultural institution that developed around photography for what came to be accepted as “what the camera likes” and the aesthetics of palettes and light conditions and such for more normalization of racist standards. Same can probably be said of a great deal of Eurocentric art, aesthetics, and technology in general.

So glad someone identified this tendency. When I did photography, I found my POC friends impossible to light with the reccomendations given by most photography blogs and such. I also found no techniques on how to photograph people with darker skin tones because even DSLRS require different types of exposures for darker skin.

Are these people serious

Yep cause it’s true

Film is an inherently racist medium, which seems unfortunately to bemost discussed by white authors (Richard Dyer, though, does have a lot of good information in White)

But when Spike Lee has to come up with his own methods of cinematography to film black people, something is definitely wrong

Or when I show up as a dark blob in photos with my white friends, or when I’m the only one who’s face isn’t picked up by any recognition technology, then I’d say film and photography are definitely racist media

edit-

idk how much we should be taking cues on racism from JLG tbh

Also the filters that get used for photo editing (digital and otherwise). Like, I think loads of pictures are specially developed with this blue tone that really lightens people up (while also making everything look washed out). And all the common tutorials (both on tumblr and elsewhere) to improve the lighting/image quality of screencaps for edits and gifs are totally useless for darker skin tones. I wish there were better fandom resources for this shit because it’s fucking frustrating.

reblogging to add:

‘12 Years a Slave,’ ‘Mother of George,’ and the aesthetic politics of filming black skin: (via cinematocat/cesaire)

“Montré Aza Missouri, an assistant professor in film at Howard University, recalls being told by one of her instructors in London that “if you found yourself in the ‘unfortunate situation’ of shooting on the ‘Dark Continent,’ and if you’re shooting dark-skinned people, then you should rub Vaseline on their skin in order to reflect light. It was never an issue of questioning the technology.” In her classes at Howard, Missouri says, “I talk to my students about the idea that the tools used to make film, the science of it, are not racially neutral.”

Missouri reminds her students that the sensors used in light meters have been calibrated for white skin; rather than resorting to the offensive Vaseline solution, they need to manage the built-in bias of their instruments, in this case opening their cameras’ apertures one or two stops to allow more light through the lens. Filmmakers working with celluloid also need to take into account that most American film stocks weren’t manufactured with a sensitive enough dynamic range to capture a variety of dark skin tones. Even the female models whose images are used as reference points for color balance and tonal density during film processing — commonly called “China Girls” — were, until the mid-1990s, historically white.

In the face of such technological chauvinism, filmmakers have been forced to come up with workarounds, including those lights thrown on Poitier and a variety of gels, scrims and filters. But today, such workarounds have been rendered virtually obsolete by the advent of digital cinematography, which allows filmmakers much more flexibility both in capturing images and manipulating them during post-production.”

and from the original article:

The artists feel certain that the ID-2 camera and its boost button were Polaroid’s answer to South Africa’s very specific need. “Black skin absorbs 42% more light. The button boosts the flash exactly 42%,” Broomberg explained. “It makes me believe it was designed for this purpose.”

In 1970 Caroline Hunter, a young chemist working for Polaroid in America, stumbled upon evidence that the company was effectively supporting apartheid. She and her partner Ken Williams formed the Polaroid Workers Revolutionary Movement and campaigned for a boycott. By 1977 Polaroid had withdrawn from South Africa, spurring an international divestment movement that was crucial to bringing down apartheid.

The title of the exhibition, To Photograph the Details of a Dark Horse in Low Light, refers to the coded phrase used by Kodak to describe a new film stock created in the early 1980s to address the inability of earlier films to accurately render dark skin.

The show also features norm reference cards that always used white women as a standard for measuring and calibrating skin tones when printing photographs. The series of “Kodak Shirleys” were named after the first model featured. Today such cards show multiple races.

12,615 notes   •   June 10 2014, 09:16 AM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE
#photography   #racism   #science   #history   
sheerdarwinism:

Wheel-running is probably not a welfare concern!
Hey guys, check this out!
There is a lot of concern about exercise wheels in the cages of captive small animals (like mice and rats), because people tend to view the behaviour of wheel running as unnatural. It’s thought to be a stereotypy (a repetitive movement or action with no discernible benefit).
But this new study suggests that actually, wheel-running has absolutely no connection to captive behaviours at all! Why not?
Well, researchers placed a wheel in the wild, and found that wild animals spent just as much time on it that captive animals did. Originally, researchers added food to the protective cage where the wheel was found to encourage animal visits. Then they removed the food, and although the number of visits decreased, the number of visits that included a bout of wheel running actually increased by 42 percent, which suggests that the reason for the visit was actually to run on the wheel.
That’s right - in the absence of a food reward, wild animals do in fact run on these wheels!
And that means that wheel-running cannot be considered a stereotypic behaviour, because it’s not dependent on a food reward, and it was comparable in bouts between wild and captive animals.
It’s possible that it’s simply a play behaviour. That is awesome, and reassuring for small animal owners (and researchers who rely on behaviourally sound animals).
You can read the whole Guardian article here.
And you can read the paper itself here.

sheerdarwinism:

Wheel-running is probably not a welfare concern!

Hey guys, check this out!

There is a lot of concern about exercise wheels in the cages of captive small animals (like mice and rats), because people tend to view the behaviour of wheel running as unnatural. It’s thought to be a stereotypy (a repetitive movement or action with no discernible benefit).

But this new study suggests that actually, wheel-running has absolutely no connection to captive behaviours at all! Why not?

Well, researchers placed a wheel in the wild, and found that wild animals spent just as much time on it that captive animals did. Originally, researchers added food to the protective cage where the wheel was found to encourage animal visits. Then they removed the food, and although the number of visits decreased, the number of visits that included a bout of wheel running actually increased by 42 percent, which suggests that the reason for the visit was actually to run on the wheel.

That’s right - in the absence of a food reward, wild animals do in fact run on these wheels!

And that means that wheel-running cannot be considered a stereotypic behaviour, because it’s not dependent on a food reward, and it was comparable in bouts between wild and captive animals.

It’s possible that it’s simply a play behaviour. That is awesome, and reassuring for small animal owners (and researchers who rely on behaviourally sound animals).

You can read the whole Guardian article here.

And you can read the paper itself here.

3,031 notes   •   June 02 2014, 06:28 PM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE
#animals   #pets   #interesting   #science   

3brokenstrings:

aunteeblazer:

omg

I just saved an entire week worth of science class.thank you tumblr

Spiders are not insects.

564,425 notes   •   May 30 2014, 12:55 PM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE

koryos:

CATS

let’s talk about housecats and how fucking weird they are evolutionarily/anthropologically

like who thought it was a good idea to have tiny malicious predators in our homes anyways????? (not us actually)

are they even domesticated????!!!?? (yes) do they even feel LOVE???????!!? (yes)

LET’S LEARN ABOUT CATS

image

you ready 2 learn punk

Read More

39,648 notes   •   May 28 2014, 08:18 PM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE

Study shows gender bias in science is real. Here€'s why it matters. 

invaderxan:

This is disturbing and it makes me sad. We need to fix this. Right, tumblr?

1,524 notes   •   May 28 2014, 04:37 AM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE
#sexism   #misogyny   #science   #scientists   
Regarding the coca/nicotine in mummies, that's generally agreed to be due to contamination caused by improper handling of open mummies; there's no record of any contact ever being made between Egypt and the Americas

shitrichcollegekidssay:

Actually, the purpose of Columbus’s third voyage was to test the claims of King John II of Portugal that “canoes had been found which set out from the coast of Guinea [West Africa] and sailed to the west with merchandise” as well as recorded reports from the Taino of Hispanola themselves that “from the south and the southeast had come black people whose spears were made of a metal called guanín [copper and copper alloys] … from which it was found that of 32 parts: 18 were gold, 6 were silver, and 8 copper.

  • Morison, Samuel Eliot (1963). Journals & Other Documents on the Life & Voyages of Christopher Columbus. New York: The Heritage Press. pp. 262, 263.
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot (1963). Journals & Other Documents on the Life & Voyages of Christopher Columbus. New York: The Heritage Press. pp. 262, 263.

I mean, the very reason he believed India and China were across the Atlantic was because two dead bodies that “looked like those of Indians” were found on Flores Island in the Azores.

  • De Las Casas, Bartolomé; (1542). Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias.

Also, the origin of coca/nicotine in mummies has not been definitively determined and this is still a subject of debate. Dismissal of such accounts and of possible evidence without thorough investigation is almost always due to antiblackness. There are plenty of recorded visits to the Americas before Columbus.

For example, the word for sweet potato in Polynesian languages (Proto-Polynesian *kumala) is almost identical to the Quechua and Aymara term for a specific variety of sweet potato: k’umar ~ k’umara. Moreover, the origin and site of domestication of the sweet potato is South American, but Polynesian peoples have cultivated the tuber before colonization. (This can’t even be argued there’s phyologenetic analysis and radiocarbon dating remains of the plan to 1000 CE, meaning that it was probably brought to Central Polynesia circa 700 CE.)

According to Adelaar and Muysken the similarity in the word for sweet potato, “constitutes near proof of incidental contact between inhabitants of the Andean region and the South Pacific”.

  • "Genetic relations of South American Indian languages". In Adelaar & Muysken, eds, The Languages of the Andes. Cambridge University Press, 2004 p. 41.

Indeed, the word for ‘stone axe’, Easter Island toki, Mapuche toki, and also Yurumangui totoki ‘axe’ are almost certainly loans from Proto-Polynesian in light of the above evidence: Proto-Polynesian *toki ‘adze, axe’ can be traced back to Proto-Austronesian.

What makes it so hard for you believe that Black people were also able to use boats?

Two studies have been published showing Amerindian genetic contribution to the Easter Island population determining that it was probably introduced before European discovery of the island.

  • Lie, B. A.; Dupuy, B. M.; Spurkland, A.; Fernández-Viña, M. A.; Hagelberg, E.; Thorsby, E. (2007). “Molecular genetic studies of natives on Easter Island: evidence of an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool”. Tissue Antigens 69: 10.
  • Thorsby, E.; Flåm, S. T.; Woldseth, B.; Dupuy, B. M.; Sanchez-Mazas, A.; Fernandez-Vina, M. A. (2009). “Further evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool on Easter Island”. Tissue Antigens 73 (6): 582–5.

Chicken bones found at the site ‘El Arenal’ in the Arauco Peninsula, an area inhabited by Mapuche, support a pre-Columbian introduction of chicken to South America by Polynesians: the DNA sequences taken were matched to those of chickens in American Samoa and Tonga, and dissimilar to European chicken. Even with a later contradicting study suggestion a lack of support for genetic similarity, the bones found in Chile were radiocarbon-dated to between 1304 and 1424, before the arrival of the Spanish.

There’s sooo much evidence for Chinese contact. And contact between Japanese sailors and Native Americans was highly probable, given powerful currents like the Kuroshio and quite a record of ship wrecks. A Japanese crash in 1850 near the Columbia River found the sailors had assimilated into the local population.

And if you’re going to claim that it’s a completely different ocean, then we can just talk about how the word for Atlantic cod entered European languages through Basque before the 12th century but appears to be a loan of Amerindian origin.

  • Jr. Schuyler, Montomery. (1902). “The Etymology of the Dutch Word ‘Kabeljauw’”. The Journal of Germanic Philology, Vol. 4, No. 1 (1902), pp. 55-57.
Or maybe how some epigraphers and linguists continue to argue that genuine Celtic Ogham inscriptions have in fact been discovered in America.
  • D. H. Kelley, “Proto-Tifinagh and Proto-Ogham in the Americas:Review of Fell; Fell and Farley; Fell and Reinert; Johannessen, et al.; McGlone and Leonard; Totten”, The Review of Archaeology, Spring 1990, http://www.reviewofarchaeology.com/pastissues.html

A substantial body of Greenland Inuit folklore first collected in the 1800s has accounts of of journeys by boat to “Akilineq”, described as a rich country across the ocean (‘the opposite country’, possibly an area in northeastern North America, or even Europe, but probably Iceland)

  • Fossett, Renée (2001). In Order to Live Untroubled: Inuit of the Central Arctic, 1550-1940. University of Manitoba Press. pp. 75–77. ISBN 0-88755-647-7.

Contact between indigenous Americans and the Norse is well attested.

In 1009, Norse explorer Thorfinn Karlsefni captured two boys from Markland (modern day Labrador, Canada) and took them to Greenland, where they were taught to speak Norse and baptized. Because they were known to take Irish and Scottish slaves, it is possible that the Norse took other indigenous peoples to Europe as slaves over the following centuries.
  • Forbes, Jack D. (1993). Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. University of Illinois Press. pp. 18–21.

A 2010 genetic study of the Icelandic population showed over 350 living Icelanders carried Amerindian mitochondrial DNA from a line of descent of a single woman, almost certainly around 1000 CE, who was likely Beothuk.

  • Ebenesersdóttir et al. (January 2011). “A new subclade of mtDNA haplogroup C1 found in icelanders: Evidence of pre-columbian contact?”. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144 (1): 92–99.

There’s plenty of archeological and literary evidence of Norse settlements, as well as their interactions with the Thule and Dorset Inuit.

And of course, the Romans.

Jewish seafarers appear have come to America after fleeing persecution of the Roman Empire at the time of the Jewish Revolt: see the Bat Creek inscription and the Los Lunas Decalogue stone.

A bay in Brazil has been yielding ancient clay storage jars that resemble Roman amphora for over 150 years.

There’s also the Tecaxic-Calixtlahuaca head, made of terracotta with a beard and European-like features found in a burial offering under three intact floors of a pre-colonial building in Toluca Valley. Both a Roman art authority in Rome and an Austrian anthropologist stated that the style of the artifact was “compatible” with small Roman sculptures of the 2nd century.

Smith concedes he cannot rule out the possibility that the head was a genuinely buried Post-classic offering at Calixtlahuaca.

I mean, here’s a New York Times article from 1985 on how underwater archeological exploration in Brazil was halted by the Brazilian navy after amphorae and possibly a Roman shipwreck were discovered. I’ve read reports about the Brazilian navy continuing some of these excavations themselves in secret.

According to Elizabeth Will, a professor of classics and specialist in ancient Roman amphoras at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, the jars are very similar to the ones produced at Kouass, a Roman Empire colony that was a center for amphora-making on the Atlantic coast of Morocco.

Reached by telephone, Professor Will said of the fragments she had studied: ”They look to be ancient and because of the profile, the thin-walled fabric and the shape of the rims I suggested they belong to the third century A.D.”

But I guess everyone but Black people and the entire continent of Africa never bothered to sail anywhere.

Most arguments against possible evidence aren’t rooted in evidence themselves but either a lack of evidence or personal opinion disguised as such.

A lack of evidence isn’t proof to the contrary. Remember that science, and much less fields where consensus is often largely based around opinion, will never be completely objective because these methodologies are performed by humans. People aren’t omniscient either (and neither is science contrary to popular opinion) because not everything survived to the present day. Things go unnoticed, ignored, suppressed, erased, and destroyed.

If you don’t think Whiteness and many anthropologists/historians/archeologists are invested in maintaining the status quo and keeping history white, you’re deluding yourself.

1,744 notes   •   May 26 2014, 03:46 AM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE

saxifraga-x-urbium:

after-fear:

Overly Honest Methods in science.

ooh this version has some ones i haven’t seen before, priceless

  #we chose macrocystis because every other kelp was rotting at that time of year    #we kept the crabs 12 to a sea table because we were sharing the space and couldnt use more    #the crabs were subject to a non-natural light cycle because other researchers kept leaving the lights on overnight (via Dicrocoeliumdendriticum)
44,539 notes   •   May 25 2014, 07:18 PM   •   VIA   •   SOURCE
#humor   #science   #scientists   #fave